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Layers of the TCP/IP (Open System Interface) Model
Defining the Four Layers of the TCP/IP Model
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) / Internet Protocol (IP)
Application Layer - Layer 4
Transport Layer - Layer 3
Internet Layer - Layer 2
Network Interface Layer - Layer 1
Diagram of the TCP/IP Model - Application Layer
The Application Layer
In TCP/IP the Application Layer also includes the OSI Presentation Layer and Session Layer. In this document an application is any process that occurs above the Transport Layer. This includes all of the processes that involve user interaction. The application determines the presentation of the data and controls the session. In TCP/IP the terms socket and port are used to describe the path over which applications communicate. There are numerous application level protocols in TCP/IP, including Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) and Post Office Protocol (POP) used for e-mail, Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) used for the World-Wide-Web, and File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Most application level protocols are associated with one or more port number.
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