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Layers of the TCP/IP (Open System Interface) Model
Defining the Four Layers of the TCP/IP Model
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) / Internet Protocol (IP)
Application Layer - Layer 4
Transport Layer - Layer 3
Internet Layer - Layer 2
Network Interface Layer - Layer 1
Diagram of the TCP/IP Model - Network Layer
The Network Access Layer
In TCP/IP the Data Link Layer and Physical Layer are normally grouped together. TCP/IP makes use of existing Data Link and Physical Layer standards rather than defining its own. Most RFCs that refer to the Data Link Layer describe how IP utilizes existing data link protocols such as Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, HSSI, and ATM. The characteristics of the hardware that carries the communication signal are typically defined by the Physical Layer. This describes attributes such as pin configurations, voltage levels, and cable requirements. Examples of Physical Layer standards are RS-232C, V.35, and IEEE 802.3.
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